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Navigating email hazards: Phishing scams - upgrading your defence against digital deceivers

  • Published : November 10, 2023
  • Last Updated : November 10, 2023
  • 15 Min Read

Phishing is a deceptive email-based attack that aims to trick recipients into taking certain actions or disclosing sensitive information. Attackers typically send fraudulent emails that impersonate trusted entities, such as banks, service providers, or colleagues. These emails often contain convincing messages and may include malicious links or attachments. Phishing attacks exploit human vulnerability and rely on psychological manipulation to deceive individuals into revealing passwords, financial details, or other confidential data. Successful phishing attempts can lead to identity theft, financial loss, unauthorized access to systems, and compromised accounts. Implementing strong email security measures and educating users about phishing risks are essential for mitigating this pervasive threat.

  1. Email spoofing: Attackers manipulate the email headers and sender information to make the email appear as if it comes from a legitimate source, deceiving recipients into believing it is trustworthy.
  2. URL phishing/link-based phishing: URL phishing involves the use of deceptive links in emails. Attackers include URLs that appear to be legitimate but actually lead to malicious websites designed to trick users into providing sensitive information, such as login credentials or personal details. These phishing URLs often mimic the URLs of well-known websites or online services to deceive recipients.
  3. Spear phishing: A targeted form of phishing where attackers tailor their messages to specific individuals or groups, using personalized information to increase the chances of success.
  4. CEO fraud/business email compromise (BEC): A sophisticated form of phishing that targets organizations, specifically executives or employees with financial authority, to trick them into authorizing fraudulent transactions or sharing sensitive company information.
  5. Credential phishing or account theft: Phishing attacks aim to steal login credentials, such as usernames and passwords, by tricking users into providing them on fake login pages or through other deceptive means.

Tackling phishing emails


These key characteristics help identify and understand the unique aspects of the different types of phishing attacks, allowing organizations to implement targeted preventive measures and enhance their email security defenses.

Phishing typeCharacteristics
Email spoofing
  • Manipulation of sender information: Email spoofing involves the deliberate manipulation of sender information, such as email addresses, names, or other details.

  • Falsified email address or details: Attackers often use forged or falsified email addresses or details to make the email appear as if it is coming from a trusted source.

  • Deceptive impersonation: Email spoofing involves the deceptive impersonation of a trusted entity, such as a company, organization, or individual, to trick the recipient into believing the email is legitimate.

  • Misleading subject lines: Email spoofing may use misleading subject lines to grab the recipient's attention or create a sense of urgency, increasing the likelihood of the recipient falling for the scam.

  • Targeted content: The content of the spoofed email may be tailored to deceive the recipient, often containing requests for sensitive information, malicious links, or attachments.

URL phishing/link-based phishing
  • Deceptive URLs or hyperlinks in emails: Phishing emails contain URLs that are designed to appear legitimate but actually lead to malicious websites.

  • Mimicking legitimate websites or services: Phishers create fake websites or mimic well-known services to trick users into entering their sensitive information.

  • Designed to trick users into visiting malicious sites: The primary goal of URL phishing is to lure users into clicking on deceptive links, leading them to fraudulent websites where their information can be stolen.

  • Exploitation of trust: Phishers take advantage of users' trust in familiar websites or services by impersonating them, making it more likely for users to fall for the scam.

  • Social engineering techniques: Phishing emails often employ social engineering tactics to manipulate recipients into clicking on malicious links, such as creating a sense of urgency or using persuasive language.

Spear phishing
  • Targeted approach: Spear phishing attacks are tailored and directed towards specific individuals or groups.

  • Personalized content: Messages are customized to appear more authentic and relevant to the target.

  • Research-based: Attackers conduct thorough research to gather information about the target to increase the chances of success.

  • Impersonation: Attackers often impersonate trusted individuals or entities to gain the target's trust.

  • Social engineering: Spear phishing attacks exploit psychological manipulation techniques to deceive targets into taking specific actions.

  • High level of sophistication: Spear phishing attacks are often well-crafted, using advanced techniques to evade detection.

  • Multi-stage attacks: Spear phishing campaigns may involve multiple stages, with initial emails leading to further exploitation or compromise

  • Contextual relevance: Attackers leverage context-specific information to make the messages appear more legitimate and convincing.

CEO fraud/BEC
  • Impersonation of executives: Perpetrators impersonate high-ranking executives or contacts within an organization to gain trust and authority.

  • Manipulation of urgency and authority: Attackers create a sense of urgency and authority in their emails, pressuring recipients to take immediate action or share sensitive information.

  • Financial transactions: CEO fraud/BEC often involves requests for financial transactions, such as fraudulent wire transfers or payments, targeting employees responsible for financial operations.

  • Spoofed email addresses: Attackers forge or spoof email addresses to make it appear as if the emails are originating from legitimate sources within the organization.

  • Social engineering techniques: Perpetrators employ social engineering techniques to manipulate recipients' emotions, trust, and willingness to comply with their requests.

  • Sophisticated reconnaissance: Attackers conduct extensive research on targeted individuals and organizations to personalize their messages and increase their chances of success.

Credential phishing/account theft
  • Deceptive impersonation: Phishing emails impersonate trusted entities, such as banks or service providers, to gain the recipient's trust.

  • Urgency and alarm: Attackers create a sense of urgency or alarm to prompt users into taking immediate action, such as updating account information or verifying credentials.

  • Fake websites or login pages: Phishing emails often contain links to fraudulent websites that mimic legitimate login pages, tricking users into entering their credentials.

  • Social engineering techniques: Attackers employ psychological manipulation to deceive users, exploiting emotions like fear, curiosity, or excitement to increase the likelihood of success.

  • Credential harvesting: The primary objective of these attacks is to steal login credentials, including usernames, passwords, and other sensitive account information.

  • Wide-scale targeting: Credential phishing campaigns are typically conducted on a large scale, aiming to trick a broad range of users into divulging their credentials.

Impact assessment

Impact assessment of different phishing threats

Attack vectors 

In the context of email security, "attack vectors" typically refer to the different methods or avenues through which an attacker can exploit vulnerabilities or carry out an attack.

ThreatAttack vectors
Email spoofing
  • Domain spoofing: Attackers send emails from deceptive domains that closely resemble legitimate domains to trick recipients into believing they are from trusted sources.

  • Display name spoofing: Attackers modify the display name of the sender to mimic a known contact or trusted entity, even though the underlying email address may be different.

  • Reply-to address manipulation: Attackers set a different reply-to address in the email to redirect responses to a malicious or fraudulent address, deceiving recipients into believing they are communicating with a legitimate sender.

  • Email header manipulation: Attackers manipulate email headers, including the "From" field, to make it appear as if the email is coming from a trusted source, such as a CEO or a high-ranking executive, increasing the likelihood of successful deception.

URL phishing
  • Malicious URLs: Attackers create deceptive URLs leading to fraudulent websites to trick users into sharing sensitive information or downloading malware.

  • URL redirection: Attackers redirect users from legitimate-looking URLs to malicious websites, often using compromised or fraudulent sites.

  • Homograph attacks: Attackers register visually similar domain names to legitimate ones, deceiving users into visiting malicious websites.

  • URL shorteners: Attackers use URL shortening services to mask the true destination of a link, increasing the likelihood of users clicking on malicious links.

Spear phishing
  • Social engineering: The attackers gather personal information from social media or other sources to personalize the attack and increase its credibility.

  • Impersonation: The attackers impersonate someone familiar to the target, such as a colleague, supervisor, or client, to establish trust and increase the chances of success. They may use similar display names, email signatures, or even forge email headers to make the message appear genuine.

  • Malicious attachments: Spear phishing emails often include attachments that contain malware or malicious scripts. These attachments may be disguised as legitimate documents, invoices, or other files, enticing the target to open them, which can lead to the compromise of their system or network.

  • Deceptive URLs: Spear phishing emails may contain deceptive URLs that direct the target to fraudulent websites designed to steal login credentials or other sensitive information. These URLs may be masked using techniques like URL shorteners or homograph attacks to make them appear legitimate.

  • Pretexting: Attackers create a believable scenario or pretext to trick the target into revealing sensitive information or performing specific actions. They may pose as IT support personnel, security team members, or other trusted individuals to gain the target's confidence.

CEO fraud/BEC
  • Executive impersonation: Attackers impersonate the CEO or other high-level executives to deceive employees into performing unauthorized actions, such as initiating wire transfers or sharing sensitive information.

  • Vendor/supplier impersonation: Attackers pose as trusted vendors or suppliers to request payment for fictitious invoices or change payment details to redirect funds to their own accounts.

  • Account compromise: Attackers gain unauthorized access to executive email accounts or other privileged accounts within the organization, allowing them to send fraudulent emails from legitimate email addresses.

  • Business relationship compromise: Attackers exploit existing business relationships to send fraudulent requests for payments or confidential information.

  • Invoice fraud: Attackers manipulate invoices or payment requests to redirect funds to fraudulent accounts.

Credential phishing
  • Phishing websites/portals: Attackers create fake websites that imitate legitimate platforms to deceive users. These websites are designed to collect login credentials and compromise user accounts.

  • Login page replicas: Attackers replicate legitimate login pages, making them appear genuine to trick users into entering their credentials. The replicas are crafted to capture sensitive information and gain unauthorized access.

  • Fake account verification requests: Attackers pose as trusted organizations and send requests asking users to verify their accounts. These requests often include links to fraudulent websites where users unknowingly submit their login credentials, which are then harvested by the attackers.

  • Keyloggers or form grabbers: Attackers use malicious software to capture keystrokes or form submissions, enabling them to collect login credentials without the user's knowledge. This technique allows attackers to obtain sensitive information directly from the user's device.

Indicators of compromise  

Below are indicators of compromise that can be warning signs of potentially malicious or fraudulent email phishing attacks. It is essential for individuals and organizations to be vigilant and exercise caution when encountering emails exhibiting these indicators to prevent security breaches.

Indicators of compromise for different phishing threats

Preventive measures

By implementing preventive measures, organizations can effectively combat the different types of phishing attacks and enhance email security.

Preventive measures of different types of phishing attacks

Detection mechanism

Here's a tabular form with the effectiveness of each detection mechanism for each type of phishing attack.

Detection mechanismEmail spoofingURL phishingSpear phishingCEO fraud/BECCredential phishing
Email header analysis: Analyzes email headers to identify anomalies, such as mismatched or forged sender information.HighMediumHighHighHigh
URL analysis: Examines URLs in emails to determine if they are suspicious or lead to known malicious websites.MediumHighHighHighMedium
Content analysis: Analyzes the content of emails, looking for phishing indicators like misspellings, grammatical errors, etc.MediumMediumHighHighMedium
Sender reputation analysis: Assesses the reputation of the email sender, considering factors like email volume, history, and authentication.HighMediumMediumHighHigh
Domain authentication: Verifies the authenticity of the sending domain by checking SPF, DKIM, and DMARC records.HighMediumHighHighHigh
Link reputation analysis: Evaluates the reputation of embedded links to identify potential malicious or phishing URLs.MediumHighHighHighMedium
User behavior monitoring: Tracks user actions and behavior to detect abnormal or suspicious activities related to phishing.MediumMediumHighHighMedium
Anomaly detection: Detects anomalous patterns in email communication, such as unusual login locations or access attempts.MediumHighHighHighMedium
Fraud detection systems: Utilizing advanced algorithms and machine learning to detect fraudulent activities.HighHighHighHighHigh

Mitigation techniques

Mitigation techniquesEmail spoofingURL phishingSpear phishingCEO fraud/ BECCredential phishing
Email filteringCan block emails that are sent from spoofed email addresses.Can block emails that contain malicious URLs.Can block emails that are targeted at specific individuals or groups.Can block emails that appear to be from a company's CEO or other high-ranking official.Can block emails that request personal information, such as passwords or credit card numbers.
Employee trainingEmployees can be trained to identify phishing emails and to report them to IT security.Employees can be trained to be wary of clicking on links in emails, even if they appear to be from legitimate sources.Employees can be trained to be suspicious of emails that are targeted at them specifically.Employees can be trained to report any emails that appear to be from the CEO or other high-ranking official to IT security.Employees can be trained to never share their passwords or other personal information over email.
Multi-factor authenticationMulti-factor authentication adds an extra layer of security by requiring users to enter a code from their phone in addition to their password when they log in. This can help to prevent attackers from gaining access to user accounts even if they have successfully phished their passwords.Multi-factor authentication can also help to prevent attackers from using stolen passwords to access user accounts.N/AN/AN/A
Data encryptionData encryption can help protect sensitive data from being stolen if an attacker does gain access to a user account.Data encryption can also help protect sensitive data from being intercepted in transit.N/AN/AN/A
Incident response planOutlines steps to address and mitigate phishing incidents.Guides response to URL phishing attacks.Provides guidelines for handling spear phishing incidents.Offers a framework for responding to CEO fraud/BEC attacks.Defines actions to take when responding to credential phishing incidents.
Account monitoringAccount monitoring can detect unauthorized logins from different locations, which may be a sign of email spoofing.Account monitoring can detect unauthorized logins from different browsers or devices, which may be a sign of URL phishing.Account monitoring can detect unauthorized logins from IP addresses that are not typically associated with the user, which may be a sign of spear phishing.Account monitoring can detect unauthorized wire transfers or other financial transactions, which may be a sign of CEO fraud/BEC.Account monitoring can detect unauthorized changes to passwords or security questions, which may be a sign of credential phishing.

Reporting and incident response 

Attack typeReporting and incident response for employeesIncident response for admins
Email spoofingIf an individual receives an email that looks suspicious, they should refrain from clicking on any links or opening any attachments. Instead, they should forward the email to their IT department or security team.If an employee reports an email that they believe is a phishing attempt, investigate the email and take appropriate action. This may include blocking the sender's email address, quarantining the email, or notifying the sender's organization.
URL phishingIf an individual receives an email that contains a link to a website, they should avoid clicking on the link. Instead, they should manually type the website address into their browser.If an employee reports an email that contains a malicious link, investigate the link and take appropriate action. This may include blocking the link, quarantining the email, or notifying the website's owner.
Spear phishingIf an individual receives an email that is specifically targeted to them, they should avoid clicking on any links or opening any attachments. They should forward the email to their IT department or security team.If an employee reports an email that is specifically targeted to them, investigate the email and take appropriate action. This may include blocking the sender's email address, quarantining the email, or notifying the employee's manager.
CEO fraud/BECIf an individual receives an email that appears to be from their CEO or another high-ranking executive, they should avoid clicking on any links or opening any attachments. Instead, they should contact the executive directly to verify the authenticity of the email.If an employee reports an email that appears to be from their CEO or another high-ranking executive, investigate the email and take appropriate action. This may include blocking the sender's email address, quarantining the email, or notifying the CEO or other executive directly.
Credential phishingIf an individual receives an email that asks for their username, password, or other personal information, they should refrain from providing it. Instead, they should contact the organization that the email appears to be from to verify the authenticity of the request.If an employee reports an email that asks for their username, password, or other personal information, investigate the email and take appropriate action. This may include changing the employee's password, resetting the employee's account, or notifying the employee's manager.

Regulatory compliance considerations

Under regulatory compliances, organizations are required to implement appropriate security measures to protect personal data from unauthorized access, loss, alteration, or disclosure. This includes email communications because emails often contain personal data. They indirectly address phishing attacks by emphasizing the need for safeguards, risk assessments, training programs, and awareness about email security among employees. Organizations should consult the specific regulations applicable to their industry and jurisdiction to ensure compliance and take appropriate actions to mitigate phishing risks.

Regulatory complianceRelevant regulations or standards
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)GDPR emphasizes the protection of personal data and privacy, which indirectly addresses phishing attacks as a threat to data security.
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)PCI DSS includes requirements for protecting payment card data, which can help mitigate phishing attacks targeting financial information.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)HIPAA focuses on safeguarding electronic protected health information (ePHI) and requires measures to protect against unauthorized access, including phishing attacks.
Federal Trade Commission Act (FTC Act)The FTC Act prohibits deceptive trade practices, including phishing attacks, and holds organizations accountable for ensuring the security and privacy of consumer information.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX)SOX mandates internal controls and measures to protect financial information, which indirectly helps mitigate phishing attacks targeting financial data.
NIST Cybersecurity FrameworkNIST provides guidelines and best practices for managing and securing information systems, which include addressing phishing threats and implementing appropriate security controls.
ISO 27001ISO 27001 is an international standard for information security management systems and includes measures to protect against phishing attacks through risk assessments, employee training, and incident response procedures.
Sector-specific regulationsSome industries have sector-specific regulations that address phishing attacks, such as the financial sector's regulations from regulatory bodies like the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) or the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Case studies 

These case studies demonstrate real-world examples of successful phishing attacks across different types, highlighting the impact and risks associated with each type of phishing technique.

Phishing typeCase
Email spoofingSnapchat employee payroll data breach:
In 2016, cybercriminals targeted Snapchat through an email spoofing attack. They impersonated the CEO of Snapchat and sent an email to the company's payroll department requesting employee payroll information. The employees, believing the email was legitimate, provided the requested data, resulting in a significant data breach.
URL phishingPayPal phishing scam targeting account credentials:
In various instances, cybercriminals have conducted phishing attacks targeting PayPal users. They send fraudulent emails pretending to be from PayPal, directing recipients to a spoofed website that mimics the official PayPal login page. Unsuspecting users enter their login credentials, unknowingly providing them to the attackers.
Spear phishingDNC email hack during the 2016 U.S. presidential election:
During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, spear phishing played a significant role in the cyber attack on the Democratic National Committee (DNC). Attackers sent highly targeted and convincing emails to DNC officials, tricking them into disclosing login credentials. This breach resulted in the release of sensitive emails, impacting the election campaign.
CEO fraud/BECUbiquiti Networks Inc. fraudulent wire transfer incident:
In 2015, Ubiquiti Networks Inc., a networking technology company, fell victim to a CEO fraud/BEC attack. The attackers impersonated the company's executive and sent fraudulent emails to the finance department, instructing them to transfer a significant amount of money to a bank account. The company suffered millions of dollars in losses due to the fraudulent wire transfer.
Credential phishingGoogle Docs phishing attack:
In 2017, a widespread phishing attack targeted Google Docs users. Attackers sent emails appearing to be a Google Docs file-sharing invitation. Clicking on the link redirected users to a fake Google login page, tricking them into entering their credentials. This attack aimed to harvest user credentials and gain unauthorized access to Google accounts.

This article is co-authored by Sandeep Kotla and Vignesh S.

Sandeep is an accomplished inbound marketer at Zoho Corporation, specializing in digital workplace strategies, digital transformation initiatives, and enhancing employee experiences. Previously, he handled analyst relations and corporate marketing for Manage Engine (a division of Zoho Corp) and its suite of IT management products. He currently spends most of his time re-imagining and writing about how work gets done in large organizations, reading numerous newsletters, and Marie Kondo-ing his inbox.

Vignesh works as a Marketing Analyst at Zoho Corporation, specializing in content initiatives and digital workplace strategies. He's a passionate creator with a penchant for marketing and growth. In his free time, you can see him shuffling between books, movies, music, sports, and traveling, not necessarily in the same order.

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